Sections pp. 29, 35
Vertebral column, development
Fig. 736 a-e
Regional characteristics of the vertebrae.
Only in the thoracic region of the vertebral column do
the lateral parts (labelled in red] remain separated and
First cervical vertebra, Atlas
Fourth cervical vertebra, Vertebra cervicalis IV
First thoracic vertebra, Vertebra thoracica I, with
corresponding ribs, Costae, and sternum, Sternum
Third lumbar vertebra, Vertebra lumbalis III
Sacrum, Os sacrum
Proc. articularis [Zygapophysis]
Demonstration of the appearance of primary ossification
centres in a lumbar vertebra (pedicle: second foetal month;
corpus: third to sixth foetal month).
Synostosis of the ossification centres of the vertebral arch
with those of the corpus occurs between the third and the
sixth year of life.
Circular ossification centres 1= rims*) appear in the
epiphyses of the vertebrae during the eighth year of life and
fuse with the vertebral bodies until the eighteenth year of
The central portions of the epiphyses remain as hyaline
cartilaginous laminae ** throughout life.
Secondary ossification centres (apophyses) develop at the